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A Complete List of the Different Types of Turtles With Pictures

Different Types of Turtles
It may come as a surprise for many, but more than 300 different species of turtles are found on the planet. These species of turtles are classified into different types on the basis of their physical and behavioral traits.
AnimalSake Staff
Last Updated: Mar 10, 2018
The Largest and the Smallest Turtle
There exist more than 300 different species of turtles in the world, with the largest being the leatherback sea turtle - with an average shell length of 6.6 ft and weight of 2,000 lb, and the smallest being the speckled padloper tortoise - with an average length of 3.1 inches and weight of 5 oz.
This difference between the largest and the smallest species of turtles speaks in volumes about the great deal of diversity in this reptile family. With time, evolution has created an ever-increasingly diverse range of turtle species, each with its own special characteristics.
The fact that there are more than 300 species of turtles may seem unbelievable, as our knowledge about this reptile species is by and large limited to those turtles which are kept as pets.
Such ignorance about the different types of turtles is surprising, considering that these reptiles have existed on the planet for more than 200 million years - fossil records validate their existence during the Upper Triassic. In what follows, you will find small factual portraits of some turtle species.
Turtle or Tortoise
Usually, the word 'turtle' is used for the members of this reptile family found in the oceans, while those found on the land are termed 'tortoises'. With different sources coming up with different explanations, there seems to be some confusion about the usage of terms 'turtle' and 'tortoise'. Basically, the usage of these terms differs in accordance to the language in question. In British English, the term 'turtles' is used for those species which are found in the sea, and 'tortoises' for those inhabiting the land. In American English, on the other hand, the term 'turtles' is used as a general term to all the species belonging to this family; and the sea-dwelling species are specifically referred to as 'sea turtles'.
Classification of Turtles
Biologically speaking, turtles are reptiles belonging to the order Testudines which is further categorized into two groups (i.e. sub-orders) - Cryptodira and Pleurodira. Those species of turtles belonging to the sub-order Cryptodira are typically characterized by the ability to retract their head into the shell, while those belonging to the sub-order Pleurodira are known to fold their unusually long necks and tuck their head into the shell. Within the order Testudines, there exist 14 families of turtles - which together comprise 97 genera of this reptile species. These 14 families are classified into the two sub-orders, with Cryptodira consisting 11 families (Carettochelyidae, Cheloniidae, Chelydridae, Dermatemydidae, Dermochelyidae, Emydidae, Geoemydidae, Kinosternidae, Platysternidae, Testudinidae and Trionychidae) and Peurodira consisting 3 families (Chelidae, Pelomedusidae and Podocnemididae.)
Various Types of Turtles
From a layman's point of view, terms like order, sub-order, genus, binomial name, etc., are bound to cause confusion. In order to make it simple, each of the existing families of turtles are grouped into different types - such as the snapping turtles, sea turtles, true tortoises, mud turtles, river turtles, soft-shell turtles, side-necked turtles, etc. Given below are the details of this classification of different turtle species on the planet.
Snapping Turtles
Snapping turtles are the species of turtles which belong to family Chelydridae. This family of turtles consists two species in monotypic genera - the 'common snapping turtle' and the 'alligator snapping turtle', with their population spanning across the continents of North America and South America, besides some parts of Asia.
Genus Chelydra
Genus Chelydra
Common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina)
Geographical Range: Canada, United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Macrochelys
Alligator snapping turtle (Macrochelys temminckii)
Geographical Range: Southern United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Sea Turtles
Sea turtles are the turtles belonging to family Cheloniidae and family Dermochelyidae - which together consist seven extant species of these marine reptiles. These are the turtle species which most of the people picture when they hear the word 'turtle'. While the Cheloniidae family consists four monotypic genera and one polytypic genera, the Dermochelyidae family is made up of a single monotypic genera - with the leatherback sea turtle as the lone member of the family. Sea turtles are found in all the oceans of the world, except for the Arctic ocean.
Genus Caretta
Genus Caretta
Loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the world
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Chelonia
Green sea turtle
Green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas)
Geographical Range: Tropical and subtropical seas of the world
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Eretmochelys
Genus Eretmochelys
Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the world
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Lepidochelys
Olive ridley sea turtle
Olive ridley sea turtle(Lepidochelys olivacea)
Geographical Range: Tropical and warm waters of the world
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii)
Geographical Range: Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Natator
Flatback sea turtle (Natator depressus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australian continental shelf
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Dermochelys (Dermochelyidae sub-family)
Leatherback sea turtle
Leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelys coriacea)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the world
Conservation Status: Endangered
Big-headed Turtles
The big-head turtle, found in south and southeast Asia, is the lone member of family Platysternidae i.e. the family of big-headed turtles. As the name of this monotypic species suggests, it is typically characterized by its large head. The big-headed turtle was grouped with the snapping turtles previously owing to its resemblance to them, but this placement was reconsidered as eventually it became clear that the resemblance is trivial.
Genus Platysternon
Big-headed turtle (Platysternon megacephalum)
Geographical Range: China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered
Pond Turtles and Marsh Turtles
Those species of turtles which are found in ponds and marshes across the world come together to form the Emydidae family of turtles. This group is made up of around 50 species, nearly all of which are found in the Western Hemisphere. The members of this turtle family are quite popular when it comes to pet trade, and hence are most popular of the lot.
Genus Clemmys
Spotted turtle
Spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata)
Geographical Range: Southern Canada and the Eastern U.S.
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Emys
Blanding's turtle
Blanding's turtle (Emys blandingii)
Geographical Range: Southern and central Europe, West Asia and North Africa
Conservation Status: Endangered
European pond turtle
European pond turtle (Emys orbicularis)
Geographical Range: Sicily, Italy
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Sicilian pond turtle (Emys trinacris)
Geographical Range: Canada and the United States
Conservation Status: Endangered
Western pond turtle (Emys marmorata)
Geographical Range: West coast of the United States of America and Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Glyptemys
Wood turtle
Bog turtle (Glyptemys muhlenbergii)
Geographical Range: Eastern United States
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Wood turtle (Glyptemys insculpta)
Geographical Range: Endemic to North America
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Terrapene
Common box turtle
Common box turtle (Terrapene carolina)
Geographical Range: Eastern United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Coahuilan box turtle (Terrapene coahuila)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Endangered
Ornate box turtle
Ornate box turtle (Terrapene ornata)
Geographical Range: Central United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Spotted box turtle (Terrapene nelsoni)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
Genus Chrysemys
Painted turtle
Painted turtle (Chrysemys picta)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout North America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Deirochelys
Chicken turtle (Deirochelys reticularia)
Geographical Range: Southeast United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Graptemys
Alabama map turtle (Graptemys pulchra)
Geographical Range: Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Barbour's map turtle (Graptemys barbouri)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the eastern United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Black-knobbed map turtle (Graptemys nigrinoda)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the southeastern United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Cagle's map turtle (Graptemys caglei)
Geographical Range: Texas, USA
Conservation Status: Endangered

Escambia map turtle (Graptemys ernsti)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

False map turtle (Graptemys pseudogeographica)
Geographical Range: Missouri and Mississippi river, USA
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Northern map turtle (Graptemys geographica)
Geographical Range: Southern Canada and the United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Ouachita map turtle (Graptemys ouachitensis)
Geographical Range: United States of America
Conservation Status: NA

Pascagoula map turtle (Graptemys gibbonsi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Pascagoula River in the United States
Conservation Status: Endangered

Pearl River map turtle (Graptemys pearlensis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Pearl River in the United States
Conservation Status: Endangered
Ringed map turtle (Graptemys oculifera)
Geographical Range: Pearl River in the United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Texas map turtle (Graptemys versa)
Geographical Range: Central Texas
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Yellow blotched sawback or Yellow-blotched map turtle (Graptemys flavimaculata)
Geographical Range: Pascagoula River and its tributaries in the United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Malaclemys
Diamondback terrapin (Malaclemys terrapin)
Geographical Range: Florida Keys to Cape Cod, United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Genus Pseudemys
Alabama red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys alabamensis)
Geographical Range: Native to Alabama
Conservation Status: Endangered
Florida red-bellied cooter
Florida red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys nelsoni)
Geographical Range: Florida and southern Georgia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Northern red-bellied cooter (Pseudemys rubriventris)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Peninsula cooter
Peninsula cooter (Pseudemys peninsularis)
Geographical Range: Florida peninsula
Conservation Status: NA
Rio Grande cooter (Pseudemys gorzugi)
Geographical Range: Mexico and the United States
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
River cooter (Pseudemys concinna)
Geographical Range: Central and eastern United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Texas river cooter (Pseudemys texana)
Geographical Range: Texas, United States
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Trachemys
Pond slider
Pond slider (Trachemys scripta)
Geographical Range: Native to the US and Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Baja California slider (Trachemys nebulosa)
Geographical Range: Baja California, Sinaloa and Sonora in Mexico
Conservation Status: NA

Big bend slider (Trachemys gaigeae)
Geographical Range: New Mexico and Texas (USA) and Chihuahua (Mexico)
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Central Antillean slider (Trachemys stejnegeri)
Geographical Range: Puerto Rico, Great Inagua, Dominican Republic and Haiti Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Colombian slider (Trachemys callirostris)
Geographical Range: Colombia and Venezuela
Conservation Status: NA

Cuatro Cienegas slider (Trachemys taylori)
Geographical Range: Cuatro Ciènegas basin, Mexico
Conservation Status: Endangered

Cuban slider (Trachemys decussata)
Geographical Range: Native to Cuba and Isla de la Juventud
Conservation Status: NA

D'Orbigny's slider (Trachemys dorbigni)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Haitian slider (Trachemys decorata)
Geographical Range: Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, and Puerto Rico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Jamaican slider (Trachemys terrapen)
Geographical Range: Bahamas and Jamaica
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Maranhão slider (Trachemys adiutrix)
Geographical Range: Endemic to northeastern Brazil
Conservation Status: Endangered

Meso-American slider (Trachemys venusta)
Geographical Range: Mexico to Honduros
Conservation Status: NA
Nicaraguan slider (Trachemys emolli)
Geographical Range: Nicaragua and Costa Rica
Conservation Status: NA

Ornate slider (Trachemys ornata)
Geographical Range: Western Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Yaqui slider (Trachemys yaquia)
Geographical Range: Northwestern Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Eurasian Pond and River Turtles, and Neotropical Wood Turtles
The Geoemydidae family is the largest family of turtles, with as many as 70 species to its credit. With the exception of the 9 species belonging to Genus Rhinoclemmys, which are found in Central America and South America, all the other members of Geoemydidae family are distributed across Eurasia, and the northern regions of Africa. Initially believed to be a monotypic species, the yellow-headed temple turtle (Hieremys annandalii) has now been added to Genus Heosemys which is part of this turtle family.
Genus Batagur
Burmese roofed turtle (Batagur trivittata)
Geographical Range: Burma
Conservation Status: Endangered

Northern river terrapin (Batagur baska)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Painted terrapin or Saw-jawed turtle (Batagur borneoensis)
Geographical Range: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Red-crowned roofed turtle (Batagur kachuga)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Southern river terrapin (Batagur affinis)
Geographical Range: Malaysia, Indonesia and Cambodia
Conservation Status: NA

Three-striped roofed turtle (Batagur dhongoka)
Geographical Range: Nepal, Bangladesh and India
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Geoclemys
Black pond turtle or Spotted pond turtle (Geoclemys hamiltonii)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Hardella
Brahminy river turtle or Crowned river turtle (Hardella thurjii)
Geographical Range: India, Pakistan and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Morenia
Bengal eyed terrapin (Morenia ocellata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Burma
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Indian eyed turtle (Morenia petersi)
Geographical Range: India and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Pangshura
Assam roofed turtle (Pangshura sylhetensis)
Geographical Range: Assam and eastern Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Endangered

Brown roofed turtle (Pangshura smithii)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Indian roofed turtle (Pangshura tecta)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Indian tent turtle (Pangshura tentoria)
Geographical Range: Peninsular India
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Chinemys
Chinese broad-headed pond turtle (Chinemys megalocephala)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Chinese pond turtle (Chinemys reevesii)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Red-necked pond turtle (Chinemys nigricans)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Cuora
Amboina box turtle (Cuora amboinensis)
Geographical Range: Throughout south and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Chinese three-striped box turtle or Golden coin turtle (Cuora trifasciata)
Geographical Range: China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Indochinese (flowerback) box turtle (Cuora galbinifrons)
Geographical Range: China, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
McCord's box turtle (Cuora mccordi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Chinese Guangxi province
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Pan's box turtle (Cuora pani)
Geographical Range: Endemic to China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Southern Vietnamese box turtle (Cuora picturata)
Geographical Range: Mountainous regions in southern Vietnam
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Vietnamese three-striped box turtle (Cuora cyclornata)
Geographical Range: China, Vietnam and Laos
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Yellow-margined box turtle, Chinese box turtle or Snake-eating turtle (Cuora flavomarginata)
Geographical Range: Central China, Taiwan and Japan
Conservation Status: Endangered
Yunnan box turtle (Cuora yunnanensis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Yunan province of China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Zhou's box turtle (Cuora zhoui)
Geographical Range: China and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Cyclemys
Asian leaf turtle (Cyclemys dentata)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA

Assam leaf turtle (Cyclemys gemeli)
Geographical Range: Bangladesh and India
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Eastern black-bridged leaf turtle (Cyclemys pulchristiata)
Geographical Range: Cambodia and Vietnam
Conservation Status: NA

Enigmatic leaf turtle (Cyclemys enigmatica)
Geographical Range: Brunei , Malaysia and Indonesia
Conservation Status: NA
Myanmar brown leaf turtle (Cyclemys fusca)
Geographical Range: Myanmar, India and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: NA

Oldham's leaf turtle (Cyclemys oldhamii)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA

Western black-bridged leaf turtle (Cyclemys atripons)
Geographical Range: Cambodia, Southeast Thailand and Vietnam
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Geoemyda
Black-breasted hill turtle (Geoemyda spengleri)
Geographical Range: China and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered

Ryukyu black-breasted leaf turtle (Geoemyda japonica)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Ryukyu Islands in Japan
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Leucocephalon
Sulawesi forest turtle (Leucocephalon yuwonoi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Indonesia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Malayemys
Malayemys macrocephala
Geographical Range: Cambodia, West Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand
Conservation Status: NA

Malayemys subtrijuga
Geographical Range: Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam and Thailand
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Heosemys
Arakan forest turtle (Heosemys depressa)
Geographical Range: Arakan hills of western Myanmar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Giant Asian pond turtle (Heosemys grandis)
Geographical Range: Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar and Thailand
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Spiny turtle (Heosemys spinosa)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Endangered

Yellow-headed temple turtle (Heosemys annandalii)
Geographical Range: Native to Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Mauremys
Balkan pond turtle or Balkan terrapin (Mauremys rivulata)
Geographical Range: Balkan peninsula
Conservation Status: NA

Caspian turtle or Striped-neck terrapin (Mauremys caspica)
Geographical Range: Eastern Mediterranean region
Conservation Status: NA

Japanese pond turtle (Mauremys japonica)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Japan
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Spanish pond turtle (Mauremys leprosa)
Geographical Range: Europe and northwestern Africa
Conservation Status: NA

Vietnamese pond turtle or Annam leaf turtle (Mauremys annamensis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to central Vietnam
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Yellow pond turtle (Mauremys mutica)
Geographical Range: China, Japan, Taiwan and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Melanochelys
Indian black turtle (Melanochelys trijuga)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Tricarinate hill turtle (Melanochelys tricarinata)
Geographical Range: India, Bangladesh and Nepal
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Notochelys
Malayan flat-shelled turtle (Notochelys platynota)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Ocadia
Chinese Stripe-necked Turtle (Ocadia sinensis)
Geographical Range: China, Taiwan and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered

Ocadia glyphistoma
Geographical Range: Endemic to Guangxi/China
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Philippen's striped turtle (Ocadia philippeni)
Geographical Range: Hainan Province of China
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
Genus Orlitia
Malaysian giant turtle or Bornean river turtle (Orlitia borneensis)
Geographical Range: Indonesia and Malaysia
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Pyxidea
Keeled box turtle (Pyxidea mouhotii or Cuora mouhotii)
Geographical Range: China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Myanmar and India Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Rhinoclemmys
Black river turtle
Black river turtle (Rhinoclemmys funerea)
Geographical Range: Costa Rica, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Brown wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys annulata)
Geographical Range: Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Panama
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Colombian wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys melanosterna)
Geographical Range: Colombia, Ecuador and Panama
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Furrowed wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys areolata)
Geographical Range: Yucatan Peninsula and surrounding areas
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Large-nosed wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys nasuta)
Geographical Range: Colombia and Ecuador
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Maracaibo wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys diademata)
Geographical Range: Colombia and Venezuela
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Mexican spotted wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys rubida)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Painted wood turtle (Rhinoclemmys pulcherrima)
Geographical Range: Mexico and Central America
Conservation Status: NA

Spot-legged turtle (Rhinoclemmys punctularia)
Geographical Range: Brazil, French Guiana, Guyana, Suriname, Venuezuela, Trinidad and Tobago
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Sacalia
Beal's eyed turtle or Beal's four-eyed turtle (Sacalia bealei)
Geographical Range: China and Hong Kong
Conservation Status: Endangered

Chinese false-eyed turtle (Sacalia pseudocellata)
Geographical Range: Hainan, China
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Four-eyed turtle (Sacalia quadriocellata)
Geographical Range: China, Laos and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Siebenrockiella
Black marsh turtle (Siebenrockiella crassicollis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Philippine forest turtle (Siebenrockiella leytensis)
Geographical Range: The island province of Palawan in Philippines
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Vijayachelys
Cochin forest cane turtle (Vijayachelys silvatica)
Geographical Range: Western Ghats of India
Conservation Status: Endangered
True Tortoises
The Testudinidae family of turtles, i.e. the true tortoises, is made up of all the land-dwelling species of this reptile. The two sub-families Testudininae (38 species) and Xerobatinae (6 species) together account for the 44 extant species of true tortoises on the planet. One gets to see a great deal of diversity within this family. The largest living species of tortoise - the Aldabra giant tortoise, is one of the most popular members of this turtle family.
Genus Aldabrachelys
Aldabra giant tortoise
Aldabra giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea)
Geographical Range: Aldabra Atoll in the Seychelles
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Arnold's giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea arnoldi)
Geographical Range: Seychelles islands
Conservation Status: Conservation dependent
Seychelles giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea hololissa)
Geographical Range: Seychelles islands
Conservation Status: Extinct in the Wild
Genus Astrochelys
Radiated tortoise
Radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Angulated tortoise or Madagascan(plowshare) tortoise (Astrochelys yniphora)
Geographical Range: Southern Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Chelonoidis
Galapagos giant tortoise
Galapagos giant tortoise (Chelonoidis nigra)
Geographical Range: Native to seven of the Galápagos Islands
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Argentine tortoise or Chilean tortoise (Chelonoidis chilensis)
Geographical Range: Native to Argentina
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Brazilian giant tortoise or Yellow-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis denticulata)
Geographical Range: South America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Chaco tortoise (Chelonoidis petersi)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Red-footed tortoise (Chelonoidis carbonaria)
Geographical Range: Native to South America
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Chersina
Bowsprit tortoise (Chersina angulata)
Geographical Range: Dry areas and scrub forest in South Africa
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Geochelone
African spurred tortoise or Sulcata tortoise (Geochelone sulcata)
Geographical Range: Southern Sahara in Africa
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Burmese star tortoise (Geochelone platynota)
Geographical Range: Myanmar (Burma)
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Indian star tortoise (Geochelone elegans)
Geographical Range: India and Sri Lanka
Conservation Status: Least Concerned
Genus Homopus
Beaked cape tortoise or Parrot-beaked cape tortoise (Homopus areolatus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Republic of South Africa
Conservation Status: NA

Berger's cape tortoise or Nama padloper (Homopus bergeri or Homopus solus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Namibia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Boulenger's cape tortoise (Homopus boulengeri)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Nama Karoo Region of South Africa and in southern Namibia
Conservation Status: NA
Karroo cape tortoise (Homopus femoralis)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the Karoo region of South Africa
Conservation Status: NA

Speckled cape tortoise or Speckled padloper (Homopus signatus)
Geographical Range: Little Namaqualand, South Africa
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Genus Indotestudo
Elongated tortoise (Indotestudo elongata)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Endangered

Travancore tortoise or Forsten's tortoise (Indotestudo forstenii)
Geographical Range: Sulawesi Island, Indonesia
Conservation Status: Endangered

Travancore tortoise (Indotestudo travancorica)
Geographical Range: Western Ghats of India
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Kinixys
Bell's hinged-back tortoise (Kinixys belliana)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout a large part of sub-Saharan Africa
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Home's hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys homeana)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the African continent
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Lobatse hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys lobatsiana)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA
Natal hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys natalensis)
Geographical Range: Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Serrated hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys erosa)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout the African continent
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Speke's hinge-back tortoise (Kinixys spekii)
Geographical Range: Africa
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Malacochersus
Pancake tortoise (Malacochersus tornieri)
Geographical Range: Native to Tanzania and Kenya
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Psammobates
African tent tortoise (Psammobates tentorius)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA

Geometric tortoise (Psammobates geometricus)
Geographical Range: South-Western Cape of South Africa
Conservation Status: Endangered

Serrated star tortoise (Psammobates oculifer)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Pyxis
Madagascan flat-tailed tortoise (Pyxis planicauda)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Madagascan spider tortoise (Pyxis arachnoides)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Stigmochelys
Leopard tortoise
Leopard tortoise (Stigmochelys pardalis)
Geographical Range: Savannas of eastern and southern Africa
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Testudo
Herman's tortoise
Herman's tortoise (Testudo hermanni)
Geographical Range: Distributed throughout southern Europe
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Marginated tortoise
Marginated tortoise (Testudo marginata)
Geographical Range: Greece, Italy and the Balkans in southern Europe
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Egyptian tortoise (Testudo kleinmanni)
Geographical Range: Egypt
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Greek tortoise or Spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca)
Geographical Range: Europe and Africa
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Russian tortoise, Horsfield's tortoise or Central Asian tortoise (Testudo horsfieldii)
Geographical Range: Afghanistan to north-western China
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Gopherus
Desert tortoise
Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)
Geographical Range: Native to the Mojave and Sonoran deserts of the US and Mexico.
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Bolson tortoise (Gopherus flavomarginatus)
Geographical Range: Native to North America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus)
Geographical Range: Native to the southeastern United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Texas tortoise (Gopherus berlandieri)
Geographical Range: Native to North America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Manouria
Brown tortoise or Mountain tortoise (Manouria emys)
Geographical Range: India, Bangladesh, Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia
Conservation Status: Endangered

Impressed tortoise (Manouria impressa)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Pig-nosed Turtles
The pig-nose turtle is the lone member of family Carettochelyidae, and is found in the freshwater sources of the Australian continent and some parts of southeast Asia. The species is typically characterized by a beak resembling the snout of a hog, and hence the name. One of the most widespread family of turtles on the planet at one point of time, family Carettochelyidae is battling for its survival today - with the pig-nosed turtle being the sole survivor of the lot.
Genus Carettochelys
Pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta)
Geographical Range: Northern Territory, Papua New Guinea and West Papua region
Conservation Status: Endangered
Central American River Turtles
The Central American river turtle, native to the rivers of Central America, is the lone survivor of family Dermatemydidae. While the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) has this species enlisted as a 'Critically Endangered' species, the U.S. Endangered Species Act has it enlisted as 'Endangered'. As in case of the pig-nosed turtle, the extinction of Central American river turtle will also mark the extinction of an entire turtle family from the planet.
Genus Dermatemys
Central American river turtle or Mesoamerican river turtle (Dermatemys mawii)
Geographical Range: Central America, from southern Mexico to northern Honduras
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Mud Turtles and Musk Turtles
Mud turtles and musk turtles are the small turtles belonging to family Kinosternidae. Though there is no consensus on classification of this family, most of the sources group the 25 extant species into 4 genera. While the common name mud turtles is derived from the fact that these species are usually known to inhabit the muddy bottoms of near-stagnant water bodies, the name musk turtles is derived from their ability to release a distinct musky odor.
Genus Kinosternon
Alamos mud turtle (Kinosternon alamosae)
Geographical Range: Sinaloa and Sonora
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Arizona mud turtle (Kinosternon arizonense)
Geographical Range: Arizona (United States) and Sonora (Mexico)
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Central American mud turtle (Kinosternon angustipons)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Central America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Creaser's mud turtle (Kinosternon creaseri)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Dunn's mud turtle (Kinosternon dunni)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Colombia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Durango mud turtle (Kinosternon durangoense)
Geographical Range: Chihuahua, Coahuila and Durango
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Eastern mud turtle (Kinosternon subrubrum)
Geographical Range: United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Guanajuato mud turtle (Kinosternon integrum)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Herrara's mud turtle (Kinosternon herrerai)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Jalisco mud turtle (Kinosternon chimalhuaca)
Geographical Range: Venezuela and Colombia
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Mexican mud turtle (Kinosternon hirtipes)
Geographical Range: United States (Texas) and Mexico
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Oaxaca mud turtle (Kinosternon oaxacae)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Mexico
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
Scorpion mud turtle (Kinosternon scorpioides)
Geographical Range: Mexico, Central America and South America
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Sonora mud turtle (Kinosternon sonoriense)
Geographical Range: Mexico and the United States
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Striped mud turtle (Kinosternon baurii)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Tabasco mud turtle (Kinosternon acutum)
Geographical Range: Belize, Guatemala and Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

White-lipped mud turtle (Kinosternon leucostomum)
Geographical Range: Mexico, Central America and South America
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Yellow mud turtle (Kinosternon flavescens)
Geographical Range: Central United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Sternotherus
Common musk turtle or Stinkpot (Sternotherus odoratus)
Geographical Range: Native to southeastern Canada and the eastern United States
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Flattened musk turtle (Sternotherus depressus)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the United States
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Loggerhead musk turtle (Sternotherus minor)
Geographical Range: Native to the United States
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Razorback musk turtle (Sternotherus carinatus)
Geographical Range: Native to the United States
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
Genus Claudius
Narrow-bridged musk turtle (Claudius angustatus)
Geographical Range: Mexico, Guatemala and Belize
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Genus Staurotypus
Chiapas giant musk turtle (Staurotypus salvinii)
Geographical Range: Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala and Belize
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Mexican giant musk turtle (Staurotypus triporcatus)
Geographical Range: Central America and Mexico
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Softshell Turtles
Softshell turtles, or softshells as they are often called, are turtles belonging to family Trionychidae, typically characterized by a carpace which is hard in the center, leathery towards the edges and lacks the typical horny scales. (The spiny softshell is the only member of this family of turtles which sports a carpace with scaly projections.) Softshell turtles are found in Asia, Africa and South America, wherein the 13 existing genera of turtles are grouped into two subfamilies - Cyclanorbinae and Trionychinae.
Genus Cyclanorbis
Nubian flapshell turtle (Cyclanorbis elegans)
Geographical Range: Benin, Chad, Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, Sudan and Togo
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Senegal flapshell turtle (Cyclanorbis senegalensis)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Genus Chelus
Mata-mata or Matamata (Chelus fimbriatus)
Geographical Range: Amazon and Orinoco basins, South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Cycloderma
Aubry's flapshell turtle (Cycloderma aubryi)
Geographical Range: Democratic Republic of Congo, Zaire, Gabon and Angola
Conservation Status: NA

Zambezi flapshell turtle (Cycloderma frenatum)
Geographical Range: Southeastern Africa
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Genus Lissemys
Indian flapshell turtle (Lissemys punctata)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Burmese flapshell turtle (Lissemys scutata)
Geographical Range: Myanmar and Thailand
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
Genus Amyda
Asiatic softshell turtle (Amyda cartilaginea)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Amyda nakornsrithammarajensis
Geographical Range: Thailand and surrounding regions
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Apalone
Florida softshell turtle (Apalone ferox)
Geographical Range: The states of South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Alabama in the U.S.
Conservation Status: NA

Smooth softshell turtle (Apalone mutica)
Geographical Range: Eastern United States
Conservation Status: NA

Spiny softshell turtle (Apalone spinifera)
Geographical Range: Canada, United States and Mexico
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Chitra
Asian narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra chitra)
Geographical Range: Indonesia, Thailand and Myanmar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Siamese narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra chitra chitra)
Geographical Range: Indian subcontinent
Conservation Status: NA

Javanese narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra chitra javanensis)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA
Indian narrow-headed shelled turtle (Chitra indica)
Geographical Range: India and Pakistan
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Burmese narrow-headed softshell turtle (Chitra vandijki)
Geographical Range: Southeast Asia
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Dogania
Malayan soft-shelled turtle (Dogania subplana)
Geographical Range: Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines and Singapore
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Nilssonia
Burmese softshell turtle (Nilssonia formosa)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Myanmar
Conservation Status: Endangered

Ganges softshell turtle (Nilssonia gangetica)
Geographical Range: South Asia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Peacock softshell turtle (Nilssonia hurum)
Geographical Range: Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Nagpur softshell turtle (Nilssonia leithii)
Geographical Range: Peninsular India
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Black softshell turtle (Nilssonia nigricans)
Geographical Range: India and Bangladesh
Conservation Status: Extinct in the Wild
Genua Palea
Wattle-necked softshell turtle (Palea steindachneri)
Geographical Range: Native to China and Vietnam
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Pelochelys
New Guinea giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys bibroni)
Geographical Range: Australia, West Papua, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Cantor's giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys cantorii)
Geographical Range: South and southeast Asia
Conservation Status: Endangered

Northern New Guinea giant softshell turtle (Pelochelys signifera)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Pelodiscus
Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis)
Geographical Range: China, Korea, North Vietnam and Japan and Russia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Hunan softshell turtle (Pelodiscus axenaria)
Geographical Range: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Conservation Status: NA
Lesser Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus piriformis)
Geographical Range: Guangxi Zhuang Region and Hunan Province
Conservation Status: NA

Northern Chinese softshell turtle (Pelodiscus maackii)
Geographical Range: Russia, Northeast China, Democratic Republic of Korea and South Korea
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Rafetus
Euphrates softshell turtle (Rafetus euphraticus)
Geographical Range: Iraq, Syrian Arab Republic, Turkey, and Khuzestan Province of Iran
Conservation Status: Endangered

Yangtze giant softshell turtle (Rafetus swinhoei)
Geographical Range: Vietnam and China
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Trionyx
Nile softshell turtle
African softshell turtle or Nile softshell turtle (Trionyx triunguis)
Geographical Range: Parts of Africa and Near East
Conservation Status: NA
Side-necked Turtles
Side-necked turtles are those species which turn their neck sidewards and tuck their head in a cavity near their front legs, instead of retracting it into the shell. These turtles are predominantly found in the southern hemisphere of the planet. The extant side-necked turtle species are further classified into two families based on their geographical range - family Chelidae, which comprises Austro-American side-necked turtles, and family Pelomedusidae, which comprises African side-neck turtles and the Madagascan big-headed and American side-neck river turtles).
Genus Chelodina
Arnhem land long neck turtle (Chelodina burrungandjii)
Geographical Range: Northern Territory, Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Broad-shelled turtle (Chelodina expansa)
Geographical Range: Southern Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Cann's snake-neck turtle (Chelodina canni)
Geographical Range: Northern and northeastern parts of Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Eastern long-necked turtle (Chelodina longicollis)
Geographical Range: Northern Queensland to South Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Narrow-breasted snake-necked turtle (Macrodiremys colliei)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the southwestern part of Western Australia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

New Guinea snake-necked turtle (Chelodina novaeguineae)
Geographical Range: Northeastern Australia, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Northern long-necked turtle (Chelodina rugosa)
Geographical Range: Australia, Indonesia and Pitcairn Islands
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Parker's snake-necked Turtle (Chelodina parkeri)
Geographical Range: West Papua in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Pritchard's snake-necked turtle (Chelodina pritchardi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Endangered
Reimann's snake-necked turtle (Chelodina reimanni)
Geographical Range: Indonesia
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Roti Island snake-necked turtle (Chelodina mccordi)
Geographical Range: Rote Island between New Guinea and Australia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Steindachner's snake-neck Turtle (Chelodina steindachneri)
Geographical Range: Western Australia
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Elseya
Branderhorst's snapping turtle (Elseya branderhorstii)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Indonesia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Gulf snapping turtle (Elseya lavarackorum)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Endangered

Irwin's turtle (Elseya irwini)
Geographical Range: Fitzroy River, Queensland
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Northern snapping turtle (Elseya dentata)
Northern Western Australia and the Northern Territory
Conservation Status: Least Concern

White throated Snapping turtle (Elseya albagula)
Geographical Range: Endemic to southeastern Queensland, Australia
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Emydura
Macquarie turtle (Emydura macquarii)
Geographical Range: Eastern Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Northern yellow-faced turtle (Emydura tanybaraga)
Geographical Range: Northern Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Red-bellied short-necked turtle or Jardine river turtle (Emydura subglobosa)
Geographical Range: Australia and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Victoria river red-faced turtle (Emydura victoriae)
Geographical Range: Northern Australia
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Elusor
Mary River turtle (Elusor macrurus)
Geographical Range: Mary River in South-East Queensland
Conservation Status: Endangered
Genus Myuchelys
Bellinger river snapping turtle (Myuchelys georgesi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Manning river snapping turtle (Myuchelys purvisi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Namoi river snapping turtle (Myuchelys belli)
Geographical Range: Endemic to New South Wales, Australia
Conservation Status: Endangered
New Guinea snapping turtle (Myuchelys novaeguineae)
Geographical Range: Indonesia and Papua New Guinea
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Saw-shelled turtle (Myuchelys latisternum)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Australia
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
Genus Pseudemydura
Western swamp tortoise (Pseudemydura umbrina)
Geographical Range: Western Australia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Rheodytes
Fitzroy River Turtle (Rheodytes leukops)
Geographical Range: Endemic to south eastern Queensland, Australia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Acanthochelys
Big-headed pantanal swamp turtle (Acanthochelys macrocephala)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Black spine-neck swamp turtle (Acanthochelys spixii)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay and Paraguay
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Brazilian radiolated swamp turtle (Acanthochelys radiolata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Chaco side-necked turtle (Acanthochelys pallidipectoris)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Mesoclemmys
Amazon toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys raniceps)
Geographical Range: Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Brazil
Conservation Status: NA

Dahl's toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys dahli)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Colombia
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered

Gibba turtle (Mesoclemmys gibba)
Geographical Range: Most of South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Hoge's side-necked turtle (Mesoclemmys hogei)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: Endangered

Mesoclemmys heliostemma
Geographical Range: South America
Conservation Status: NA

Mesoclemmys nasuta
Geographical Range: Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana and Brazil
Conservation Status: NA

Mesoclemmys perplexa
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: NA
Tuberculate toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys tuberculata)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: NA

Vanderhaege's toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys vanderhaegei)
Geographical Range: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay
Conservation Status: Near Threatened

Zulia toad-headed turtle (Mesoclemmys zuliae)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Venezuela
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Phrynops
Cotinga river toadhead turtle (Phrynops tubersosus)
Geographical Range: South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Geoffroy's side-necked turtle (Phrynops geoffroanus)
Geographical Range: Most of South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Hilaire's side-necked turtle (Phrynops hilarii)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina
Conservation Status: Least Concern

Williams' side-necked turtle (Phrynops williamsi)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay and Argentina
Conservation Status: NA
Genus Platemys
Twist-necked turtle (Platemys platycephala)
Geographical Range: Northern South America
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Rhinemys
Red side-necked turtle (Rhinemys rufipes)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia and Peru
Conservation Status: Near Threatened
Genus Hydromedusa
Argentine snake-necked turtle (Hydromedusa tectifera)
Geographical Range: Northern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Brazil
Conservation Status: NA

Brazilian snake-necked turtle (Hydromedusa maximiliani)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Brazil
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Pelomedusa
African helmeted turtle or Marsh terrapin (Pelomedusa subrufa)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Pelusios
Adanson's mud turtle (Pelusios adansonii)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: NA

African dwarf mud turtle (Pelusios nanus)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: NA

African forest turtle (Pelusios gabonensis)
Geographical Range: Tropical West Africa
Conservation Status: NA
African keeled mud turtle (Pelusios carinatus)
Geographical Range: Gabon, Congo-Brazzaville and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Conservation Status: NA

Central african mud turtle (Pelusios chapini)
Geographical Range: Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo
Conservation Status: NA

East African black mud turtle (Pelusios subniger)
Geographical Range: Eastern and southeastern Africa
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Gabon mud turtle (Pelusios marani)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Gabon
Conservation Status: NA

Okavango mud turtle (Pelusios bechuanicus)
Geographical Range: Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zambia and Zimbabwe
Conservation Status: NA

Serrated hinged terrapin (Pelusios sinuatus)
Geographical Range: Southern Africa
Conservation Status: Data Deficient
Turkana mud turtle (Pelusios broadleyi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Kenya
Conservation Status: Vulnerable

Upemba mud turtle (Pelusios upembae)
Geographical Range: Endemic to Democratic Republic of the Congo
Conservation Status: Data Deficient

Variable mud turtle (Pelusios rhodesianus)
Geographical Range: Most the African continent
Conservation Status: Least Concern
West African black turtle (Pelusios niger)
Geographical Range: West Africa
Conservation Status: NA

West African mud turtle (Pelusios castaneus)
Geographical Range: The African continent
Conservation Status: NA

Williams mud Turtle (Pelusios williamsi)
Geographical Range: Endemic to the upper Nile drainage
Conservation Status: NA

Yellow-bellied mud turtle (Pelusios castanoides)
Geographical Range: Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Seychelles, South Africa and Tanzania
Conservation Status: Least Concern
Genus Erymnochelys
Madagascan big-headed turtle (Erymnochelys madagascariensis)
Geographical Range: Western Madagascar
Conservation Status: Critically Endangered
Genus Peltocephalus
Big-headed Amazon River turtle or Big-headed sideneck (Peltocephalus dumerilianus) Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Venezuela and Ecuador
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Genus Podocnemis
Yellow-spotted Amazon river turtle or Yellow-spotted river turtle
Yellow-spotted Amazon river turtle or Yellow-spotted river turtle (Podocnemis unifilis) Geographical Range: Amazon basin
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Arrau river turtle or Charapa turtle (Podocnemis expansa)
Geographical Range: South America and the Caribbean
Conservation Status: Conservation dependent

Red-headed Amazon side-necked turtle or Red-headed sideneck (Podocnemis erythrocephala)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Rio Magdalena river turtle or Magdalena river turtle (Podocnemis lewyana)
Endemic to Colombia
Conservation Status: Endangered

Savanna side-necked turtle (Podocnemis vogli)
Venezuela and Colombia
Conservation Status: NA

Six-tubercled Amazon river turtle or Six-tubercled river turtle (Podocnemis sextuberculata)
Geographical Range: Brazil, Colombia and Peru
Conservation Status: Vulnerable
Though the Madagascan big-headed turtles and the American side-neck river turtles have often been grouped into family Podocnemididae, it is believed that the members of this turtle family are quite similar to the members of family Pelomedusidae - and hence the two families should be merged. 
Though the turtles - with a history of 200 million years, boast of being one of the longest living species on the Earth, serious questions are being raised about their future. In a study by the 'IUCN/SSC Tortoise and Freshwater Turtle Specialist Group', it was revealed that 25 species of turtles are at an 'extremely high risk of extinction'. The data on sea turtles was not taken into consideration in course of this study; had it been included the leatherback sea turtle and the Kemp's ridley sea turtle would have had also featured in this list of critically endangered turtles.
Large-scale predation, habitat destruction, overharvesting for food, and so on. The list of threats these turtles face seems to be never ending. While turtle conservation projects do exist, it is difficult to keep a check on illegal poaching of these reptiles - which, though illegal, has become a multi-million dollar industry. Wildlife experts also suggest that this is just a rough picture, and the actual situation is much more grave than what it is believed to be.
Florida Softshell Turtle Apalone Ferox
Little Turtle
Sea Turtle Underwater
Spiny Softshell Turtle
Turtle On Green Background
Painted Turtle On A Log
Turtle Rock
Turtle Tortoise Soft Shell Turtl
Turtle In The River
Turtle Sanctuary At Shitennoji Temple
Turtle On Green Grass Texture
Sea Turtle Diving Down In Pool
Turtle On A Half Shell
Moorea Turtle And Fish
Turtle
Peninsula Cooter Turtle In Marsh Water
Spur Thighed Turtle
Snapping Turtle Chelydra Serpentina
Turtle Indian Ocean
Turtle On A Grass
Diamondback Terrapin Turtle
Old Turtle
Chinese Stripe Necked Turtle
River Turtle
Turtle
Mud Turtle On Gravel Rocks